¨ Physical Science Methods and Measurements
¨ Motion and Forces
¨ The Atom
¨ Periodic Table
¨ Chemical interactions
¨ Radioactivity and nuclear reactions
¨ Energy Sources and society
Standards Terminology Glossary
¨ General - Goals
¨ Content - What a student should know
¨ Competency - What a student should be able to do
¨ Assessment - How well a student should be able to perform
¨ Rubric - Scoring tool to evaluate the level of student performance
1. Physical Science Methods and Measurements
1.1.1. Demonstrate understanding of the scientific method.
1.1.2. Distinguish between controls and variables.
1.2.1. Use SI units to measure length, volume and mass.
1.2.2. Convert SI Units to other SI units.
1.3.1. Understand and demonstrate the rules of laboratory safety.
1.3.2. Construct a written laboratory report.
1.4.Making and using graphs.
1.4.1. Recognize when data display requires a line graph or a bar graph.
1.4.2. Construct line and bar graphs according to accepted graphing criteria.
2. Motion and Forces
2.1.Motion, speed and acceleration.
2.1.1. Define speed as a rate.
2.1.2. Perform calculations involving velocity and acceleration.
2.1.3. Interpret distance-time graphs.
2.1.4. Interpret speed-time graphs.
2.1.5. Recognize that an object in circular motion is accelerating.
2.2.Types of forces and friction.
2.2.1. Identify the different types of forces.
2.2.2. Contrast balanced and unbalanced forces.
2.2.3. Compare mass and weight.
2.2.4. Relate gravitational force to mass and distance.
2.2.5. Understand the role of friction in forces.
2.3.Newton’s Laws of motion.
2.3.1. Discuss Newton’s Laws of motion.
2.3.2. Describe momentum.
3.1.Nature of potential and kinetic energy.
3.1.1. Understand that energy causes change.
3.1.2. Distinguish between potential and kinetic energy.
3.1.3. Describe different types of energy conversions.
3.1.4. Explain the relationship between matter and energy.
3.1.5. Understand that energy is used to do work.
3.1.6. Perform calculations using the formula for work.
3.1.7. Contrast the everyday definition of work with its scientific meaning.
3.2.1. Understand that heat is a form of energy.
3.2.2. Distinguish between temperature and heat.
3.2.3. Use temperature measurements to calculate heat energy.
3.2.4. Describe how conduction, convection and radiation transfer heat.
3.2.5. Explain how heat energy causes a phase change.
3.2.6. Discuss thermal expansion.
4.1.Characteristics of waves and their interactions.
4.1.1. Sketch a transverse wave and identify its characteristics.
4.1.2. Contrast transverse waves and compression waves.
4.1.3. Calculate the speed of waves.
4.1.4. Classify wave interactions of sound.
4.2.Sound as compression waves.
4.2.1. Describe sound and its transmission.
4.2.2. Understand that the speed of sound varies.
4.2.3. Distinguish between frequency and pitch.
4.2.4. Define loudness.
4.2.5. Illustrate the Doppler Effect with an example.
4.2.6. Understand the way the human ear detects sound.
4.3.Light as electromagnetic waves.
4.3.1. Contrast electromagnetic waves with other types of waves.
4.3.2. Summarize the different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.
4.3.3. Identify the colors in visible light.
4.3.4. Explain how you can see color.
4.3.5. Describe the process of reflection.
4.3.6. Describe the process of refraction.
4.3.7. Analyze diffraction and interference patterns and relate them to the wave behavior of light.
5.1.Volume and density.
5.1.1. Explain what is meant by the term, matter.
5.1.2. Calculate the density of an object when you know its mass and volume.
5.2.Physical and chemical properties and changes.
5.2.1. Distinguish between physical and chemical properties.
5.2.2. Distinguish between properties and changes.
5.3.Phases of Matter
5.3.1. Model the solid, liquid and gaseous forms of matter.
5.4.Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
5.4.1. Describe how matter is classified according to its make-up.
5.4.2. Recognize the difference among elements, compounds and mixtures.
6. The Atom
6.1.Development of the atomic model.
6.1.1. Describe how the atomic model has changed over time.
6.2.Structure of the atom.
6.2.1. Summarize the parts of the atom.
6.2.2. Describe the present model of the atom.
6.3.Common elements and isotopes.
6.3.1. List the names and symbols of the common elements.
6.3.2. Explain the meaning of the term isotope.
7. Periodic Table
7.1.Origin and arrangement of the Periodic Table.
7.1.1. Summarize Mendeleev’s role in the formation of the periodic table.
7.1.2. Recognize how the modern periodic table is designed.
7.2.Chemical families and periodic properties.
7.2.1. Describe differences among metals, nonmetals and metalloids.
7.2.2. Describe some properties of eight families of the periodic table. (the representative elements)
7.2.3. Explain how periodic properties of the elements are functions of Atomic number.
8. Chemical Interactions
8.1.1. Explain why atoms combine.
8.1.2. Describe the difference among ionic, covalent, metallic and network bonds.
8.1.3. Explain how to determine oxidation numbers.
8.1.4. Write formulas for the compounds from their names.
8.1.5. Write names for the compounds from their formulas.
8.2.1. Classify the four types of chemical reactions.
8.2.2. Balance simple chemical equations.
8.2.3. Explain the reasons for a change in the rate of a chemical reaction.
8.3.Acids, bases and salts.
8.3.1. Describe the properties and uses of acids and bases.
8.3.2. Relate the strength of acids and bases to pH.
8.3.3. Describe the formation of a salt through a neutralization reaction.
8.3.4. Understand the importance of acids, bases and salts in the environment.
9. Radioactivity and nuclear reactions
9.1.1. Discuss the discovery of radioactivity.
9.2.1. Contrast the properties of radioactive versus stable nuclides.
9.3.Forms of radiation.
9.3.1. Discuss the different forms of radioactivity.
9.3.2. Determine the half-life of an isotope.
9.3.3. Describe current methods for the detection of radioactivity
9.4.1. Distinguish between nuclear fission and nuclear fusion.
9.5.Uses of radioactivity.
9.5.1. Discuss current uses for radioactivity in daily life.
10.Energy Sources and society
10.1. Fossil Fuels.
10.1.1. Discuss the types of fossil fuels.
10.2. Nuclear Energy.
10.2.1. Outline the operation of a nuclear reactor.
10.2.2. Describe the problems associated with nuclear waste disposal.
10.2.3. Discuss nuclear fusion as a possible energy source.
10.3. Alternative Energy Sources.
10.3.1. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of several alternative energy sources.
10.4. Energy Conservation
10.4.1. Discuss the need and methods for energy conservation.