Environmental Science

General Standards
¨     History and Structure of the Earth
¨     Ecosystems and Energy Flow
¨     Water Ecosystems and Pollution
¨     Changes in Human Population
¨     Air Pollution
¨     Soil Studies
¨     Land Use and Waste Management
¨     Energy Needs
Standards Terminology Glossary
¨     General - Goals
¨     Content - What a student should know
¨     Competency - What a student should be able to do
¨     Assessment - How well a student should be able to perform
¨     Rubric - Scoring tool to evaluate the level of student performance
1.     History and Structure of the Earth
Content Standard
1.1.Features of the Earth
Competency Standard
1.1.1.   Describe the composition of the earth
1.1.2.   Describe the structure of the earth
1.1.3.   Construct a geologic time line
1.1.4.   Defend the story of creation in Genesis with the scientific theory for the beginning of the earth
Content Standard
1.2.Geology and Earth Dynamics
Competency Standard
1.2.1.   Prove that convection currents play a part in plate tectonics
1.2.2.   Show how various natural phenomena account for changes on the earth's surface
1.2.3.   Illustrate the rock cycle
1.2.4.   Identify the various mineral types
1.2.5.   Explain the changes caused by weathering, erosion and mass wasting
1.2.6.   Evaluate the impact of geologic hazards
1.2.7.   Analyze technology's role in natural resource sustainability
Content Standard
Competency Standard
1.3.1.   Collect and interpret meteorological data
1.3.2.   Show how weather patterns may affect ecosystems
1.3.3.   Use computer data to analyze and predict weather changes
1.3.4.   Evaluate specific adaptations of plants and animals to survive climate changes
1.3.5.   Identify natural occurrences that have international impact (e.g., El Nino, earthquakes, hurricanes)
Content Standard
1.4.Maps / Mapping
Competency Standard
1.4.1.   Demonstrate how various maps are used
1.4.2.   Explain the terms used on various maps
1.4.3.   Apply current technology to mapping skills
2.     Ecosystems and Energy Flow
Content Standard
2.1.Land Biomes
Competency Standard
2.1.1.   Identify the major biomes of the world
2.1.2.   Analyze the abiotic factors that affect the biomes
2.1.3.   Analyze the biotic factors that affect the biomes
Content Standard
2.2.Interrelationships in Ecosystems
Competency Standard
2.2.1.   Explain energy flow in an ecosystem
2.2.2.   Explain carrying capacity
2.2.3.   Identify the trophic levels of an ecosystem
2.2.4.   Identify the stages of succession
2.2.5.   Identify a species and explain how its adaptations are related to its niche
2.2.6.   Develop food webs from food chains
Content Standard
Competency Standard
2.3.1.   Explain the importance of biodiversity
2.3.2.   Analyze the importance of biodiversity in an ecosystem
2.3.3.   Identify and explain why adaptations can lead to specialization
2.3.4.   Compare adaptations among species
2.3.5.   Explain the relationship between species loss and biodiversity
2.3.6.   Predict how human activities can produce changes to which organisms cannot adapt
2.3.7.   Describe the problem of an introduced species
Content Standard
2.4.Extinction and Evolution
Competency Standard
2.4.1.   Explain the relationship between evolution and extinction
2.4.2.   Identify criteria for categorizing organisms as threatened, endangered or extinct
2.4.3.   Explain the impact of the Endangered Species Act
2.4.4.   Analyze the role of zoos and wildlife preserves
2.4.5.   Analyze management strategies regarding threatened or endangered species
Content Standard
2.5.Natural Cycles
Competency Standard
2.5.1.   Identify / describe natural cycles in the ecosystem
2.5.2.   Explain how cycles affect the balance in an ecosystem
2.5.3.   Analyze consequences of interrupting natural cycles
3.     Water Ecosystems and Pollution
Content Standard
3.1.Aquatic Environments / Freshwater
Competency Standard
3.1.1.   Describe water organisms and their adaptations
3.1.2.   Describe groundwater and the recharge process
3.1.3.   Analyze the need to protect the groundwater
3.1.4.   Evaluate the running water in your community
Content Standard
3.2.Aquatic Environments / Marine
Competency Standard
3.2.1.   Explain the ocean wave action
3.2.2.   Illustrate the ocean floor topography
3.2.3.   Evaluate the process of desalinization
3.2.4.   Identify marine life (plant and animal)
Content Standard
Competency Standard
3.3.1.   Identify various wetlands
3.3.2.   Explain the importance / maintenance of wetlands
3.3.3.   Discuss ways in which students can actively participate in wetland preservation
Content Standard
3.4.Water Pollution
Competency Standard
3.4.1.   Analyze water quality (physical and chemical)
3.4.2.   Identify toxins and their source
3.4.3.   Evaluate the effects of pollution on aquatic life
3.4.4.   Explain the changes that have taken place on the Chesapeake
3.4.5.   Demonstrate the need to prevent further polluting of oceans, lakes, rivers and streams
3.4.6.   Discuss ways in which students can play an active role in pollution prevention
4.    Changes in Human Population
Content Standard
Competency Standard
4.1.1.   Describe population characteristics
4.1.2.   Explain the relationship between sex ratio and age distribution
4.1.3.   Relate carrying capacity to limiting factors
4.1.4.   Describe changes in human populations
4.1.5.   Analyze reasons for changes in human populations
4.1.6.   Estimate "doubling time" for various populations
Content Standard
4.2.Cultural and Economic Influences
Competency Standard
4.2.1.   Relate population density to GNP
4.2.2.   Explain the political factors that affect population growth
4.2.3.   Explain the cultural / social reasons that affect population growth
4.2.4.   Discuss ethical considerations of population control
Content Standard
4.3.Patterns of Resource Use
Competency Standard
4.3.1.   Explain the relationship between population size and energy use
4.3.2.   Analyze the relationship between population growth, changes in CO2production and global warming
Content Standard
Competency Standard
4.4.1.   Predict human population changes in the future
4.4.2.   Discuss availability of needed resources for increased populations
4.4.3.   Examine the need for political changes to support increased population
5.     Air Pollution
Content Standard
5.1.Outdoor Air Pollution
Competency Standard
5.1.1.   Describe sources of indoor pollution
5.1.2.   Compare the results of natural pollution with industrial pollution
5.1.3.   Identify the effects of air pollution on human health
5.1.4.   Identify / explain laws that impact the problem of air pollution
5.1.5.   Identify ways of detecting air pollution by using state of the art technology
Content Standard
5.2.Indoor Air Pollution
Competency Standard
5.2.1.   Describe sources of indoor pollution
5.2.2.   Explain how human health is affected by indoor air pollution
5.2.3.   Identify household cleaners as air pollutants
5.2.4.   Explain disposal problems of household cleaners as pollutants
Content Standard
5.3.Global Warming.
Competency Standard
5.3.1.   Explain the problem of global warming
5.3.2.   Explain the causes of global warming
5.3.3.   Predict the effects of human activities on global warming
5.3.4.   Develop ways to decrease global warming
Content Standard
5.4.Acid Rainfall
Competency Standard
5.4.1.   Explain the term acid rain
5.4.2.   Explain the occurrence of dry acid deposition
5.4.3.   Identify causes of acid precipitation
5.4.4.   Assess the effects of acid precipitation
Content Standard
5.5.Ozone Depletion
Competency Standard
5.5.1.   Explain ozone depletion
5.5.2.   Identify causes of ozone depletion
5.5.3.   Identify possible hazardous effects of ozone depletion
6.     Soil Studies
Content Standard
6.1.Changes Through Science / Technology
Competency Standard
6.1.1.   Describe how early man obtained food and shelter
6.1.2.   Explain the role of archeology / radiocarbon dating
6.1.3.   Construct a technology time line from early man to current developments in agriculture
6.1.4.   Describe soil texture
6.1.5.   Describe the formation of soil
6.1.6.   Identify the physical / chemical types of weathering
6.1.7.   Identify the types of soil erosion
6.1.8.   Predict how human activities can slow the rate of erosion
Content Standard
Competency Standard
6.2.1.   Distinguish between organic and inorganic fertilizers
6.2.2.   Describe the essential soil nutrients
6.2.3.   Analyze the quality of the soil
6.2.4.   Explain the advantages / disadvantages of the different types of fertilizers
Content Standard
6.3.Pests / Pesticides
Competency Standard
6.3.1.   Identify the common pest types of American farmers
6.3.2.   Trace the history of pesticide use
6.3.3.   Describe the problem of persistent pests
6.3.4.   Explain bioaccumulation
6.3.5.   Discuss the importance of Rachel Carson and "Silent Spring"
6.3.6.   Describe the problem of fertilizers and pesticides in regard to air and water pollution
Content Standard
6.4.World Hunger
Competency Standard
6.4.1.   Identify the world's tillable lands
6.4.2.   Assess the ability of technology to solve the problem of food production
7.     Land Use and Waste Management
Content Standard
7.1.Conservation / Reclamation
Competency Standard
7.1.1.   Identify the need for land conservation
7.1.2.   Describe various reclamation areas
Content Standard
7.2.Waste and Disposal
Competency Standard
7.2.1.   Identify types of waste material
7.2.2.   Discuss landfill use
7.2.3.   Describe landfill construction
Content Standard
7.3.Toxins in the Water
Competency Standard
7.3.1.   Analyze toxins found in the water
7.3.2.   Explain the impact of Love Canal
7.3.3.   Examine the responsibilities of chemical companies
7.3.4.   Analyze how people can actively participate in waste reduction
Content Standard
Competency Standard
7.4.1.   Describe the methods of recycling
7.4.2.   Identify common recycling products
7.4.3.   Demonstrate how people can actively participate in waste reduction
8.     Energy Needs
Content Standard
8.1.Fossil Fuels
Competency Standard
8.1.1.   Construct a time line of energy sources from 1800 to the present.
8.1.2.   Describe the importance of fossil fuels
8.1.3.   Demonstrate the need for crude oil
8.1.4.   Discuss the process of making fuels
8.1.5.   Describe the process of making synthetic fuels
Content Standard
8.2.Nuclear energy
Competency Standard
8.2.1.   Explain the role and function of nuclear power plants
8.2.2.   Describe a nuclear power plant
8.2.3.   Identify the global impact of nuclear power energy
8.2.4.   Describe the problems and concerns of nuclear power
8.2.5.   Examine the global problems and concerns of nuclear power
         8.2.6 Explain the problem and effects of TMI and Chernobyl